What is Pigmentation?
Pigmentation is one of the skin disorders which occurs due to the overproduction of skin element i.e. melanin. The Colour of the skin depends on the melanin. Generally, it happens due to sun damage and may affect the area of face, arms, shoulders etc but can involve any area.So in simple terms, pigmentation happens due to the damage of skin cells or production of injured melanin.
Overproduction stage of melanin is called Hyper-pigmentation which makes the skin color darker and Underproduction stage of melanin is called Hypo-Pigmentation which makes the skin color lighter.
Expecting mother and women with hormonal imbalance may have the problem of the skin pigmentation, darker spots, and patches around the face and neck. Tanning is also taken as the skin pigmentation affecting the whole body surface.
Causes of Pigmentation:
There is no specific reason for the pigmentation, still sun damage is the biggest reasons one can have. So find below the possible causes of Pigmentation which needs to avoid for the clear skin:-
- Sun Burn or exposure to the sun rays
- Drug Reaction
- Fungal infection
- Genetic Factors
- Auto-Immune Disorders
- Hormonal changes or imbalance
- Over or underproduction of Melanin
Symptoms of Pigmentation
Symptoms are noticeable in the form of patches, dark spots or discolored skin around the Face, Chest, Arms, Upper back & Shoulders. Other symptoms of hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation are:-
- Brown patches on the skin
- Dark Spots
- Discolored Skin with more lightness or darkness
Any change in the normal skin color can be the sign of pigmentation and skin specialist can better help to recognize the actual disease.
Types of Pigmentation
Depending upon the causes and environmental factors, pigmentation has been divided into various types which are:-
- Melasma: It occurs due to normal changes and especially at the time of pregnancy. The skin changes can be seen in the face and abdominal areas. It may occur to both male and female but female are most likely to get affected with the same. It can be recognized with the brown patches on forehead, cheeks and upper lips.
- Sun Damage: One of the common type of tanning in which dark skin spots can be seen on the face, arms, shoulders, chest and upper back. They are also called solar Lentigines. These are also referred to as the silver spots or age spots.
- Freckles or Ephelides: This usually occurs due to the family history and ultra-voiles rays.
- Post Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH): This is the result of inflammation of wound, traumatic injury to the skin or skin lesions.
Diagnosis of Pigmentation:
To diagnose the skin disorder, one should analyze the physical examination and the medical history. Apart from this, below-mentioned tests can also be performed:-
- Visual Examination
- Wood's lamp
- Skin Biopsy
- Other dermatological diagnostic tools
Treatment of Pigmentation:
Treatment will depend on the severity and age of the skin disorders. So here we will elaborate the write about the best possible treatments of Pigmentation:-
- Rule number one always visit a dermatologist before your pigmentation becomes permanent. Dermatologist who will diagnose the exact reason and will offer the cream, lotion etc to improve the skin tone.
- If creams and lotions are not working then chemical peels can be done
- Sometimes doctor may combine it with Q Switch laser.
Prevention of Pigmentation?
To avoid the pigmentation, following tips need to be used:-
- Avoid Sun Exposure. To prevent the sunburn, cover your skin or use sunscreen lotions.
- Choose skin care products wisely after consulting your dermatologist
- Hydrate your skin with moisturizers
- Drink lots of water
To protect your skin from the side-effects of pigmentation, better to consult with your nearest pigmentation specialist or Dermatologist in Gurgaon.
Dr. Jasdeep Kaur
MBBS , DDVLRead More